Percentage Volume Oscillator (PVO)

The Percentage Volume Oscillator (PVO) is a momentum oscillator for volume. The PVO measures the difference between two volume-based moving averages as a percentage of the larger moving average. As with MACD and the Percentage Price Oscillator (PPO), it is shown with a signal line, a histogram and a centerline. The PVO is positive when the shorter volume EMA is above the longer volume EMA and negative when the shorter volume EMA is below. This indicator can be used to define the ups and downs for volume, which can then be used to confirm or refute other signals. Typically, a breakout or support break is validated when the PVO is rising or positive.

Generally speaking, volume is above average when the PVO is positive and below average when the PVO is negative. A negative and rising PVO indicates that volume levels are increasing. A positive and falling PVO indicates that volume levels are decreasing. Chartists can use this information to confirm or refute movements on the price chart.

Even though the PVO is based on a momentum oscillator formula, it is important to remember that moving averages lag. A 12-day EMA include 12 days of volume data, with newer data weighted more heavily. A 26-day EMA lags even more because it contains 26 days of data. This means that the PVO(12,26,9) can sometimes be out of sync with price action.

The Percentage Volume Oscillator (PVO) is a momentum indicator applied to volume. This oscillator can be quite choppy due to the fact that volume doesn't trend. Bullish and bearish divergences are not well suited for the PVO. Instead, chartists would be better off looking for signs of increasing volume with a move into positive territory and signs of decreasing volume with a move into negative territory. Increasing volume can validate a support or resistance break. Similarly, a surge or significant support break on low volume may be less robust. As with all technical indicators, it is important to use the Percentage Volume Oscillator (PVO) in conjunction with other aspects of technical analysis, such as chart patterns and momentum oscillators.
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